Archive for the ‘ Research/Studies/Education ’ Category

Gina report 2019

From Gina” The 2019 update of the Global Strategy for Asthma Management and Prevention¬†incorporates new scientific information about asthma¬†based on a review of recent scientific literature by an international panel of experts on the GINA Science Committee. This comprehensive and practical resource about one of the most common chronic lung diseases worldwide contains extensive citations from the scientific literature and forms the basis for other GINA documents and programs. “


Scott D. Weingart, MD, Richard M. Levitan, MD

Alveoli will continue to take up oxygen even without diaphragmatic movements or lung expansion. In an apneic patient, approximately 250 mL/minute of oxygen will move from the alveoli into the bloodstream. Conversely, only 8 to 20 mL/minute of carbon dioxide moves into the alveoli during apnea, with the remainder being buffered in the bloodstream.53 The difference in oxygen and carbon dioxide movement across the alveolar membrane is due to the significant differences in gas solubility in the blood, as well as the affinity of hemoglobin for oxygen. This causes the net pressure in the alveoli to become slightly subatmospheric, generating a mass flow of gas from pharynx to alveoli. This phenomenon, called apneic oxygenation, permits maintenance of oxygenation without spontaneous or administered ventilations. Under optimal circumstances, a PaO2 can be maintained at greater than 100 mm Hg for up to 100 minutes without a single breath, although the lack of ventilation will eventually cause marked hypercapnia and significant acidosis.

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Pre Oxygenate



Pediatric asthma lacks sensitive objective measures for asthma monitoring. The forced oscillation technique (FOT) offers strong feasibility across the paediatric age range but relationships between FOT parameter day-to-day variability and paediatric asthma severity and control are unknown.

Conclusions:  Increased day-to-day FOT variability exists in asthmatic school-aged children. Day-to-day Rrs variability was associated with asthma severity and with asthma control. FOT may be useful objective monitoring tool in paediatric asthma and warrants further study.


PubMed Central Canada (PMC Canada):

Within-Breath Analysis of Respiratory Mechanics in Asthmatic Patients by Forced Oscillation


?Forced oscillation technique (FOT): a new tool for epidemiology of occupational lung diseases?

New research in The FASEB Journal suggests that two receptors of leukotriene B4, BLT1 and BLT2, actually play opposite roles in inflammation, suggesting new drug targets and strategies for treatment



Inflammatory on and off switch identified for allergic asthma and COPD

Chest. 2014. doi:10.1378/chest.13-0309


CHEST Journal | Article

Conclusions:  Increased LAVI is associated with heightened CO2 chemosensitivity and greater frequency of CSA. LAVI may be useful to guide referral for PSG for detection of CSA in HF patients.




Background:  Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and heart failure with preserved ejection fraction overlap clinically, and impaired left ventricular (LV) filling is commonly reported in COPD. The mechanism underlying these observations is uncertain, but may include upstream pulmonary dysfunction causing low LV preload or intrinsic LV dysfunction causing high LV preload. The objective of this study is to determine if COPD and emphysema are associated with reduced pulmonary vein dimensions suggestive of low LV preload.

Methods:  The population-based MESA COPD Study recruited smokers aged 50-79 years who were free of clinical cardiovascular disease. COPD was defined by spirometry. Percent emphysema was defined as regions <-910 Hounsfield units on full-lung computed tomography. Ostial pulmonary vein cross-sectional area was measured by contrast-enhanced cardiac magnetic resonance and expressed as the sum of all pulmonary vein areas. Linear regression was used to adjust for age, gender, race-ethnicity, body size and smoking.

Results:¬†¬†Among 165 participants, total pulmonary vein area was 558¬Ī159mm2¬†in COPD and 623¬Ī145mm2¬†in controls. Total pulmonary vein area was smaller in COPD (-57mm2¬†95%CI -106 to -7mm2; p=0.03) and inversely associated with percent emphysema (p<0.001) in fully adjusted models. Significant decrements in total pulmonary vein area were observed among participants with COPD alone, COPD with emphysema on computed tomography, and emphysema without spirometrically defined COPD.

Conclusions:  Pulmonary vein dimensions were reduced in COPD and emphysema. These findings support a mechanism of upstream pulmonary causes of under-filling of the LV in COPD and in patients with emphysema on computed tomography.


Vienna, Austria: New research has shown that despite electronic cigarettes being marketed as a potentially safer alternative to normal cigarettes, they are still causing harm to the lungs.

A new study, presented today (Sunday 2 September 2012) at the European Respiratory Society’s Annual Congress in Vienna, has added new evidence to the debate over the safety of alternative nicotine-delivery products.

……‚ÄúWe found an immediate rise in airway resistance in our group of participants, which suggests e-cigarettes can cause immediate harm after smoking the device. More research is needed to understand whether this harm also has lasting effects in the long-term.

Read More: (Canadian Medical Association)

Read more: (BloomBerg)

Read More: (European Respiratory Society)

Conclusions: Smoking cannabis was associated with a dose-related impairment of large airways function resulting in airflow obstruction and hyperinflation. In contrast, cannabis smoking was seldom associated with macroscopic emphysema. The 1:2.5‚Äď5 dose equivalence between cannabis joints and tobacco cigarettes for adverse effects on lung function is of major public health significance.

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