The Drinker and Shaw tank-type ventilator of 1929 was one of the first negative-pressure machines widely used for mechanical ventilation. Better known as the iron lung, this metal cylinder completely engulfed the patient up to the neck. A vacuum pump created negative pressure in the chamber, which resulted in expansion of the patient’s chest. This change in chest geometry reduced the intrapulmonary pressure and allowed ambient air to flow into the patient’s lungs. When the vacuum was terminated, the negative pressure applied to the chest dropped to zero, and the elastic recoil of the chest and lungs permitted passive exhalation.


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